All livelihood strategies depend upon access to assets of some kind or other, whether such access involves private ownership or other forms of access. Note also that, whilst improved access to livelihood assets and the outcome of greater livelihood security (especially higher incomes, more stable incomes, and reduced risk) are usually important objectives in rural livelihood strategies, environmental sustainability may or may not be an objective. In a majority of cases, remittances came from abroad (60%), and, to a lesser extent, from Manila (21%). There are two main coping indicators used in the food security analysis: The Reduced Coping Strategy Index (rCSI) and the Livelihood Coping Strategy … Farmers alone accounted for 39 percent of the population. The range and diversity of livelihood strategies are enormous. An individual's livelihood involves the capacity to acquire aforementioned necessities in order to satisfy the basic needs of themselves … As with any abstract model, the livelihoods framework is not entirely free of ambiguity, especially in relation to what is put in the various 'boxes' and the relationship the boxes have with each other. This category of influences comes under a variety of different headings. However, compared to the rest of the population, households who were displaced at the time of the survey were more likely to engage in the exploitation of natural resources as a livelihood strategy, and, to a lesser extent, trading. Most frequently, they reported relying during that experience on assistance from family and relatives (36%) or other sources (36%). These researchers grouped livelihood strategies into three categories, namely farming activities, non-farming activities and agriculture, while Alemu grouped livelihood strategies into four categories, namely non-labour, agriculture, off farming and non-farming. The objective of those wishing to promote sustainable livelihoods is to minimise trade-offs of the sort discussed above and to maximise complementarities. The sustainable livelihoods framework in 3.1.1 is an effort to conceptualise livelihoods in a holistic way, capturing the many complexities of livelihoods, and the constraints and … illustrates diversification as a rural livelihood strategy. The livelihoods framework is a way of looking at the complexity of people's livelihoods, especially the livelihoods of the poor, whether they be rural or urban. The social, physical, financial, natural, and human dimensions within slaughterhouses have taken a central position in diversifying livelihoods among pastoralists in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) in Kenya. There is a need to expound on the literature about these dimensions and assess how they impact on livelihood strategies and outcomes. A majority of hou… They can also influence livelihood strategies in a slightly less direct way, when people, anticipating the potential impact of trends and shocks, design their livelihood strategies in a way that helps them manage their exposure to sudden or gradual change and cope better with the potentially harmful effects of such change. One can examine strategies from the perspective of an individual or from the perspective of a household, although, as we shall see later, there are problems with treating the 'household' as a unified decision-making unit pursuing a joint strategy with common goals. These results suggest that day laborers are on average among the least wealthy households in terms of income, assets, and housing material. 14 Story St, 02138 Cambridge, MAinfo@peacebuildingdata.org, Explore the interactive map with all indicators by region. While remittances are an important source of support for the households, it was generally seen as temporary, with 94 percent of the households indicating that the individuals sending remittances had plans to return to their place of origin. Finally, they can increase people's power and influence. The natural resource exploiters group clustershouseholds that rely directly on the exploitation of natural resources to sustain their livelihood, including the sale and preparation of charcoal (38%), agriculture (22%), and livestock (17%). This section examines the relationships between households’ settlement status and their livelihood activities and strategies. At some point in live, the older persons are disengage from their long life activities and thus, they are deprived of some basic things. Grouping livelihood strategies enables easy analysis and comparisons as there are a multitude of economic activities that households may engage in, but … UNHCR’s Global Strategy for Livelihoods 2014–2018 has contributed to transform-ing the way the organization is working through the introduction of professionalized, data-driven, market-oriented approaches that strengthen linkages with the private sector and development actors. Livelihood definition is - means of support or subsistence. Skilled workers rely primarily on skilled employment (60%) and construction skilled employment (19%) to sustain their livelihood. Day laborers (14%) and skilled workers (11%) were the second and third most frequent group. We shall look more at these ideas in Section 3. The following table presents a brief description of the characteristics of eachof the eight groups, such as the average monthly income and the proportion of households in the two poorest wealth quintiles. In addition to differences in livelihood activities, income, and wealth, livelihood groups were found to have statistically significant differences (p<0.05) with regards to several variables typically considered to be vulnerability or poverty indicators. They are also something people invest in so as to increase future flows of income/consumption. Livelihood interventions should be designed and implemented to strengthen women’s and men’s productive capacity early on, when it matters most, and to promote longer-term self-sufficiency. UNHCR and the ILO in partnership have carried out This group relies on transport as a mean to support its livelihood (average 70% contribution). It should be fairly clear that all of the listed items can affect an individual's access to assets, although precisely how will obviously depend upon the situation being examined. They have on average the highest monthly income, at 13,750 PhP/month. This study is tasked with presenting findings related to both non- and less climate-dependent livelihood strategies. A relatively unified 'household' will obviously be able to employ a wider range of strategies than an individual acting alone. Livelihood strategies aim at developing self-reliance. One definition is presented in 2.2.2. Poor people usually employ a mix of different 'strategies', especially when resources are to some extent pooled. Exposure to change can have a direct influence on livelihoods by weakening them, strengthening them, or forcing a new direction. Finally, livelihood strategies frequently vary between individuals and households depending on differences in asset ownership, income levels, gender, age, caste, and social or political status. In relation to livelihood security, take particular note of the distinction between income level, income stability (or regularity), and degrees of risk. Note that in the 'shocks' box one might also add prices, since these can also change fairly suddenly. community level strategies and objectives that are pursued alongside, or in lieu of, traditional agricultural activities to diversify income streams and reduce risk. Disaggregated by settlement status, there were some important differences. For example, better access to environmental capital may improve access to financial capital and physical capital; and greater income stability and lower risk may lead to higher aggregate income in the long term by reducing the probability of having to sell off productive assets in times of crisis, or by enhancing the returns to individual assets. Figure 27: Distribution of livelihood profiles by settlement status. The results indicate that households that were displaced at the time of the survey were more likely to have relied on the production of charcoal to sustain themselves (26%) compared to less than 6 percent among those who returned home or elsewhere. Better access to assets is a desirable outcome of any livelihood strategy. Nevertheless, what the framework does offer is a way of conceptualising in a simplified way the complexity of rural livelihoods, and the different variables that shape activities, objectives, and outcomes. Table 4: Characteristics of livelihood groups. Study the diagram and see whether you can see possible relationships between the different variables listed in columns A to F. In discussing this we start at the centre, columns D and E, then move to the right (column F) before coming back to columns A to C. The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. In the livelihoods framework, assets are conventionally divided into the following. Contemporary livelihood strategies in many African cities involve participation in multiple economic activities, usually in both the formal and informal sectors. There were differences between strata. Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour markets or labouring in the home. ), maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, while not undermining the natural resource base”. They have the second highest proportion of households engaging in only one activity (52%), and the third lowest estimated monthly income (5,150 PhP/month). membership of formal groups or organisations, informal social interactions in and outside the workplace, relationships of reciprocity, including gift exchange and mutual assistance. The carrying capacity of pure pastoralist livelihood strategies only to attain food and livelihood security is extremely declining from time to time. This was significantly more than households who resettled elsewhere (24% and 10% respectively), and households that were displaced at the time of the survey (19% and 29% respectively). Farmers, fishers, and those dependent on the exploitation of natural resources were generally characterized by poor income and asset ownership,low education of the household head, high dependency ratio and crowding factor, and poor access to services. Whilst rural people may seek improvements across a wide range of livelihood outcomes the need to prioritise may force them to make undesirable trade-offs between them, at least in the short term. A majority of households reported engaging in agriculture (56%), the most common activity. 2019 - 2023 Global Strategy Concept Note: Refugee Livelihoods and Economic Inclusion; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and UNHCR: A 10-point multi-stakeholder action plan for employers, refugees, governments and civil society; Comprehensive list of UNHCR decentralised evaluations on livelihood strategies and approaches Over half the households who identified themselves as having returned home after displacement were farmers (51%). As outlined in the previous table, the average cash income is lowest among day laborers (4,750 PhP/month), fishers (4,800 PhP/month), and farmers (5,150 PhP/month). To prevent repeated displacement, we support engagement in social and economic opportunities that reinforce the adaptive capacity of systems, individuals, families and communities affected by displacement. In Sultan Kudarat, this rises toover one in four households (29%). Conventional economics does not have a social capital category and precisely what social capital consists of is open to debate. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. PeacebuildingData.org at the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative Such investments may help to build trust and facilitate co-operation. Livelihood strategies are the range and combination of activities and choices that people normally make or undertake in stable and peaceful times in order to achieve their livelihood goals (e.g. Econ. Livelihood assets are something from which people derive a flow of income or consumption. Shocks, such as those associated with the triple-f crisis (see Section 1.3) can wipe out assets very suddenly if they are not protected and adverse trends can result in them being gradually eroded if livelihoods are unable to adapt to change. The livelihoods framework offers a conceptualisation that can help outsiders work together with the poor to identify the priorities of the poor and associated opportunities and constraints. That is why in the livelihoods framework the latter is usually labelled along with livelihood security as an outcome variable rather than as an objective. Skilled workers account for 11% of the population and are most frequent in the urban area such as Cotabato City, where they account for 24% of the households. Livelihood is defined as a set of activities essential to everyday life that are conducted over one's life span. However, some reported engaging in agriculture (29%), day labor (16%), and trading activities (15%). Among all groups, farming is the most common activity. 3.2 DEFINITION OF THE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD ... (CSC) to enhance livelihood strategies for poor women in urban areas. Households who rely primarily on day labor (54%) or unskilled labor (19%) to support their livelihood, with an additional contribution from agriculture (13%). 8-9) or 'policies, institutions and processes' (a more recent classification). Over 40% of the households that had returned home had benefited from assistance from their relatives and family (42%) and other sources (43%) while displaced. Other differences included the higher frequency of fishers in Maguindanao (20% compared to 7% or less elsewhere), and a higher proportion of day laborers in Sultan Kudarat (23% compared to 12% or less elsewhere.). Households in the survey were asked to name up to three livelihood activities, by order of importance. The Coping Strategy Index (CSI) measures food insecurity by considering the activities undertaken by households to manage food shortages. Among the 12 percent of households who received remittances, 62 percent indicated receiving remittances from women, and 42 percent indicated receiving remittances from men. Use of the term capital implies that it can serve productive ends. An individual may take on several activities to meet his/her needs. Households who depend almost exclusively on agriculture (87%) to support their livelihood. It seeks to understand the various dimensions of a person's livelihood; the strategies and objectives pursued, and associated opportunities and constraints. They represent 7% of the population and are present throughout the study area. Can you think of some examples of such trade-offs? A livelihood strategy is an organized set of life-style choices, goals and values, and activities influenced by biophysical, political/legal, econo- mic, social, cultural, and psychological compo-nents. Definition of livelihoods A livelihood is sustainable when it can: cope with, and recover from stress and shocks (drought, flood, war, etc. An individual may take on several activities to meet his/her needs. This is consistent with the finding that natural resources exploiters were more common among currently displaced households compared to the rest of the population. Figure 28: Economic activities undertaken while displaced. It represents 8% of the total population, and is most frequent in the urban areas (36% in Cotabato City compared to 10% or less elsewhere). Inversely, households that had then returned home had,while they were displaced, relied less frequently on activities such as day labor or trade compared to other groups. For example, the category of 'social relations' overlaps to some extent with 'social capital' in the 'assets' box. Although the number of households concerned is too limited to provide a definitive answer, the results further suggests that displaced households mainly received remittances from Manila (67%), while the majority of the beneficiaries among the other groups received remittances from abroad (50% or more). Their mean income, at 5,800 PhP/month is below average (6,500 PhP/month). We promote livelihood strategies that protect, recover and strengthen individuals' and households' abilities to earn a living. In this unit, we adopt the classification used by Ellis (2000), which is based on the following. Fishing contributes to an average of 70% of the livelihood amongthese households, with agriculture contributing an average of 16%. The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. Poor urban people often also depend upon multiple diverse livelihood activities involving different employment (labouring) and self employment activities. livelihoods and livelihood enhancement and diversification as tools for rural development and poverty reduction. A framework is a ‘particular way of viewing the world’.1The livelihoods framework is a way of understanding how households derive their liveli- hoods by drawing on capabilities and assets to develop livelihood strategies composed of a range of activities. ABSTRACT. Income level is obviously important to people, but to poor people income stability and risk avoidance may be as important, if not more so. They have an average income, of 5,400 PhP/month. Also bear in mind that income in the livelihood security box does not just refer to monetary income but also to incomes in kind, such as the food produced by smallholder farmers for home consumption. Fisher are found throughout the region (7% of the population), but were most frequent in Maguindanao (20%). A socially differentiated analytical approach to livelihood strategies is thus necessary (ibid., page 11). It is a crucial productive resource particularly for the rural community that is why the stake- holders in the area put land as one among the main 162 J. Dev. An important influence on livelihood strategies is exposure to various trends and shocks. Among the overall study population, 8 percent of the households said that they relied on remittances as one of their main sources of livelihood. For this group, remittances contributed an average of 33 percent of the total livelihood activities. Rather this consists in maintaining over time a diversified portfolio of activities and in adjusting it according to contingencies in order to maximize return, spread risk, or achieve other household goals (see below). Livelihood strategies denote the range and combination of activities and choices (including on production and investment) made by households in order to sustain themselves and contribute to the economic capital of the household. Households in the richest wealth quintile were more likely to receive remittances from abroad (75%) compared to the other households. These trends and shocks are sometimes known in livelihoods analysis as the vulnerability context, suggesting that the changes thus represented have potentially harmful effects. Note also that trends in a community or country may be made up increasing or decreasing shocks affecting individual people or livelihoods (for example increasing morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS may be a trend in a country but the onset of HIV/AIDS is a shock to those directly affected by it). Principal component and cluster analyses were used to group together households that shared similar patterns of activities based on the relative importance of those activities to the overall livelihood. The analyses resulted in a total of eight groups: (1) Farmer, (2) Day laborer, (3) Skilled workers, (4) Alternative livelihood, (5)Natural resources exploiter, (6) trader, (7) Fisher, and (8) Transporter. You may encounter, 'transforming structures and processes' (Carney 1998 pp. Livelihood strategies denote the range and combination of activities and choices (including on production and investment) made by households in order to sustain themselves and contribute to the economic capital of the household. Livelihood strategies: How people access and use these assets, within the aforementioned social, economic, political and environmental contexts, form a livelihood strategy. These fluctuations are often dramatic and can profoundly affect livelihood security (Devereux et al 2011) People's livelihood strategies are designed, where possible, to reduce seasonal income fluctuations and the associated vulnerability. They account for 9% of the households and are present in a similar proportion across all regions. We have also added an additional feedback arrow to Ellis' original diagram to emphasise the (positive or negative) effects that livelihood strategies and outcomes can have on livelihood assets. Seasonality refers to the fact that many rural livelihood strategies (especially in agriculture) result in seasonal fluctuations in income. There are various ways of conceptualising the components of a livelihood and the influences upon it, and you may encounter various slightly different diagrammatic representations of these variables and their interconnections. This document presents a conceptual framework for integrating sustainable, ... adopts the definition proposed by … Livelihood strategies: How people access and use these assets, within the aforementioned social, economic, political and environmental contexts, form a livelihood strategy. productive activities, investment strategies, reproductive choices). On the whole, the more assets someone has the less vulnerable they are to various shocks and trends. Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor l… Livelihood strategies may focus on increasing the range of assets to which a person or household has access, or on increasing access to particular types of capital. The ultimate objective of these investment strategies is to improve long-term livelihood security and the quality of life of more generally. Diversifying livelihood strategies at current time become a standard phenomenon within the study area. In the framework presented here, the outcomes of livelihood strategies are divided between the effects on livelihood security and the effects on environmental sustainability. The evolution of livelihood strategies was examined in Molas, a coastal village in North They rely on a range of activities with most households engaging in two (62%) or three (19%) activities. 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