Overview Overview. The Eastern Massasauga is a pygmy rattlesnake; most adults are only 60–75 cm long. Generally rattlesnakes lie still and rattle if you come too close. Symptoms of a Rattlesnake Bite. I think that I just got bitten by a rattlesnake! The Massasauga prefers to avoid humans. Ontario and Michigan, the province and state with the most massasaugas, report an average of 1 to 2 bites a year. This type of bite will likely be accompanied by pain and swelling. The eastern massasauga, a rare sight for most Michigan residents, has been declining due to fragmentation and loss of wetland habitat. If you observed your cat being bit by a snake, try to take note of what kind of snake it is (for instance, rattlesnake) or any of its identifying marks. It is Michigan's only venomous snake, and one of only two rattlesnake species that occur in the Great Lakes region. Officials are warning vacationers to take precautions in cottage country this summer, with six Massasauga Rattlesnake bites reported so far this year. The authors thank Dr. Terence Fargher, who provided insight into and expertise on the use of Antivipmyn for massasauga rattlesnake bites. In accordance with the West Parry Sound Health Centre algorithm for rattlesnake bites, he received one vial of Antivipmyn, followed by an additional nine vials.1 (Test doses are given to allow monitoring for anaphylaxis.) Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake - Tag I'm It! All Rights Reserved, Signs & Treatment of Liver Disease in Cats. If possible, snap a photo of the snake. Figure 1: The massasauga rattlesnake is characterized by its blotching 651 likes. The Massasauga is a pygmy rattlesnake; most adults are only 60 to 75 centimetres long. Their range includes southern Canada and the eastern and central United States. Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake Sistrurus catenatus Fact Sheet . Recurrent coagulopathy has been reported after treatment with Fab antivenom in about one-third to one-half of patients.12,13 Antivenom is rotated through multiple facilities including municipal zoos, The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and hospitals near areas where massasauga rattlesnakes are known to reside. The eastern massasauga rattlesnake has been listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. A three-phase survey process, including visual searching, drift fencing, and the use of artificial cover objects, was employed. The vet may need to administer antivenom, IV fluids, feeding tubes, and oxygen, depending on the severity of the situation. Learn what to look for and how to treat your pet in the unlikely event that this happens. Although there may have been a bite, the rattlesnake does not always inject venom. The main danger which a timber rattlesnake poses is its bite. Threatened species are animals and plants that are likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future. Monitoring for coagulopathies is required after massasauga rattlesnake bites. Eastern massasauga rattlesnake bites. Like all rattlesnakes, it is a pit viper, and like all pit vipers, it is venomous Two species of rattlesnakes inhabit Wisconsin: the timber rattlesnake and the eastern massasauga. The West Parry Sound Health Centre manages the anti-venom supplies for Ontario hospitals, sending it to the hospitals where the need is anticipated. The venom of the massasauga is actually more poisonous to mice and other small mammals in comparison to lizards or frogs because they have been the massasauga’s primary source of food. Rattlesnakes Bites Symptoms. The Massasauga Rattlesnake ... Eastern Massasauga, Western Massasauga, and Desert Massasauga. The U.S. We’ve compiled an incomplete list of common venomous snakes in the U.S. The massasauga has relatively small fangs, which are not likely to penetrate leather hiking boots or loose clothing.1,9, Initial first aid should focus on supporting the patient’s airway, breathing and circulation.10 Tourniquets, ice and attempts at venom removal should be avoided and, because of the possibility of swelling, accessories such as rings or watches should be removed. The image in (A) was taken before treatment with antivenom, 12 hours after the bite. Only two people in Eastern Canada have died from a Massasauga bite - neither received proper treatment. The belly is black with scattered light markings. People live in fear of these creatures, and because of fear - the rattlesnakes lives are in danger. Contributors: Both authors contributed to the conception and design of the work, drafted the manuscript, revised it critically for important intellectual content, gave final approval of the version to be published and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work. The massasauga rattlesnake is the last of our venomous list and is one that doesn’t often make the most venomous list, but because this list is combining venom and danger, the massasauga rattlesnake has made it. Antivenom should be administered to patients with signs and symptoms of envenomation. Typically (because there are always exceptions), non-venomous snake bites are horseshoe- or U-shaped and may be accompanied by pain and bleeding—but not swelling. The eastern massasauga rattlesnake has been listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The massasauga is the state's only venomous snake and rattlesnake… We do not capture any email address. Geographic distribution of the massasauga rattlesnake in Ontario. All editorial matter in CMAJ represents the opinions of the authors and not necessarily those of the Canadian Medical Association or its subsidiaries. Local poison control centres should be involved for rattlesnake envenomation, as they can provide direction regarding treatment and can facilitate the provision of antivenom. Snakes usually avoid humans, but if they do bite, it can be dangerous. Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake SSP. A bite victim showing symptoms of venom is treated with about $9,000 worth of antivenom, which is manufactured in Mexico and imported from the U.S. The veterinarian will want to know any information you have about the snake, where the attack took place, and where and how long since your cat was bit. The massasauga bites and injects the venom when its fangs are deep enough into the prey’s body. Only two people in Eastern Canada have died from a Massasauga bite - neither received proper treatment. Monitoring for coagulopathies is required after massasauga rattlesnake bites. According to the U.S.F.W. A violation of the Act can result in a maximum fine of $25,000 and/or imprisonment for up to a year. The Top 10 Deadliest Snakes in the United States - Owlcation They are poisonous, but to my knowledge - they do not attack. But what if you come across a snake bite on a cat? The only venomous snake in Ontario, the massasauga rattlesnake resides mainly in the Eastern Georgian Bay area and the Bruce Peninsula (Figure 3).2 The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) considers the snake to be threatened and it is protected under federal and provincial laws. Additional doses of antivenom may be … This rattlesnake is very small for a rattlesnake, with typical adults only reaching about 24 inches long. Meow do you do? PDF Version . Cover photo © Umberto Salvagnin / CC-BY-SA-2.0, Copyright: © Automated Pet Care Products. Copyright 2021, Joule Inc. or its licensors. 3 Look for signs of shock. Stay calm. Transient myosis is said to be a symptom of severe envenomation due to the bite of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake . The person will experience pain and possibly bleeding, drooping eyelids, and low blood pressure. It does have potent venom, more so than the Timber Rattler, but its fangs are short and a minimal amount is injected with a bite. Figure 2B shows substantial improvement in the patient’s erythema and edema 40 hours after the bite. The eastern massasauga, a rare sight for most Michigan residents, has been declining due to fragmentation and loss of wetland habitat. ISSN 1488-2329 (e) 0820-3946 (p). Local injury, pain or swelling is concerning for envenomation after a rattlesnake bite. Additional doses of antivenom may be needed; thus, close monitoring is required. Transient ... swelling is localized 30 to 60 minutes after the bite and there are no other symptoms, including no coagulopathy after 8 to 12 hours of observation. The eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) is a candidate for federal listing as a threatened or endangered Distinct Population Segment (DPS) (U.S. FWS 2003). He did not have any bleeding and his fibrinogen levels normalized over two months.4. The best way to prevent a cat snake bite? Typically (because there are always exceptions), non-venomous snake bites are horseshoe- or U-shaped and may be accompanied by pain and bleeding—but not swelling. • Additional doses of antivenom may be needed; thus, close monitoring is required. Symptoms of venom poisoning will occur a few hours after the bite has happened and you might feel pain, burning or itching around the bite, a white blister may also form. The eastern massasauga is primarily associated with wetland habitats but some populations also utilize adjacent upland habitats for parts of its life history. Discussion. They have rings at the end of … Immobilize the limb. As a result, bites from the Massasauga are known to cause severe internal bleeding, as well as severe pain. Local poison control centres should be involved for rattlesnake envenomation, as they can provide direction regarding treatment and can facilitate the provision of antivenom. • Antivenom is the first-line treatment for envenomation. The toxin further disrupts normal blood clotting mechanisms leading to uncontrolled bleeding. As with all vipers, this rattlesnake has hollow fangs that are used to inject poisonous saliva, or venom, into their prey or enemies. That patient’s fibrinogen decreased to less than 1.47 μmol/L, but there were no other abnormalities in coagulation laboratory work. The Massasauga prefers to avoid humans. Dogs are at risk for rattlesnake bites; in fact, dogs are about 20 times more likely to be bitten by venomous snakes than people and are about 25 times more likely to die if bitten. • Monitoring for coagulopathies is required after massasauga rattlesnake bites. They also thrive on small lizards, frogs, small snakes and other reptiles as well. Treatment should begin as soon as possible after the bite. Call the Ontario Poison Centre right away! When this enzyme enters the bloodstream, it disrupts blood flow and prevents blood clotting. Adapted from “Recovery Strategy for the massasauga (Sistrurus Catenatus) in Canada,” Parks Canada Agency, 2015. ease 2 A 25-year-old white female turned over a log in a suburban vacant lot and suffered a bite to the volar aspect of her right wrist. Other symptoms to watch for in your … A 25-year-old man with a hemorrhagic bleb located on the left hallux with concomitant swelling and erythema of the lower left leg. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. Other symptoms to watch for in your pet include: If you notice a bite mark or any of the above symptoms on your cat (but didn’t observe the attack itself), we recommend taking your cat to an animal hospital right away. My little buddy - Sistrurus catenatus - the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake. Average Total Length: 4’ Description: The Timber Rattlesnake is the largest venomous snake in Ohio. Its head is triangular and its vertical pupils differentiate it from other snakes in Ontario. eastern massasauga rattlesnake is present at the INDU, both active searching and passive collecting were used. “Dry bites” comprise about 25% of bites and do not require antivenom;10 these patients should be carefully monitored in hospital for at least 8 hours, and ideally 24 hours, as signs of envenomation can be delayed.14 Serial measurements of limb circumference should be taken and laboratory work, including a complete blood count, coagulation parameters and fibrinogen, should be measured at the initial assessment. It's a medium volume "zzzzzzzt" unlike the rattlesnakes heard in movies. One or two puncture marks Pain, tingling or burning at the area of the bite Swelling at the area of the bite Bruising and discoloration at the site of the bite Numbness Nausea, weakness and lightheadedness. It must be remembered, too, that not all pit viper bites result in envenomation. Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) is a State Endangered Species and a Federally Threatened Species.This rattlesnake is strongly associated with floodplain habitats along medium to large rivers, especially near river confluences, where they primarily occupy open canopy wetlands, such as sedge meadows, fresh wet meadows, shrub-carrs, and adjacent upland … It is a small- to medium-sized snake, with adult lengths averaging 2 to 3 feet. The snake is listed as threatened because of loss of population throughout its range. The bite from a Massasauga rattlesnake can be venomous. Cat Behavior After Surgery: What’s Normal? Three subspecies are currently recognized including the nominate subspecies described here. Check your immunization status and obtain a tetanus shot if needed. If your cat is nervous or anxious, restrain him if necessary. By this time, 24 vials of antivenom had been administered. Rattlesnake bites are uncommon, but potentially devastating. Neurotoxic symptoms typically start The Massasauga rattlesnake … On initial examination, the patient had a hemorrhagic bleb two puncture marks 1.5 cm apart on his great toe. He has also received funding for preparation of educational materials and presentations from Alexion, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, the BMS-Pfizer Alliance, LEO Pharma, AbbVie, Bayer, Celgene, Shire and CSL Behring, and participated in various medicolegal activities relating to thrombosis, anticoagulant drugs, or other aspects of hematological practice, and that these activities are bound by confidentiality arrangements. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on CMAJ. Approach your cat carefully. Aside from antivenom, additional treatment (blood products or vitamin K) was not administered. They are infamous for their aggression and highly venomous bite. The only venomous snake in Ontario, the massasauga rattlesnake resides mainly in the Eastern Georgian Bay area and the Bruce Peninsula (Figure 3). It is brownish with saddle- or butterfly-shaped darker brown blotches on the back that alternate with smaller blotches on the sides. The venom is composed of various cytotoxins, enzymes, and neurotoxins known to destroy tissue, disrupt blood flow, and prevent proper clotting. The Desert Massasauga, Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii, inhabits xeric grasslands from western Texas to southeastern Arizona and occurs in The pupils are elliptical in shape. Massasauga rattlesnake envenomation can be treated with Antivipmyn, a F(ab′)2 fragment produced in horses. Antibodies to snake venoms (antivenom) are the most efficacious treatment for viper envenomation (pit vipers are a family of snakes that includes rattlesnakes). This was an Eastern massasauga rattlesnake, according to the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Food Habits of Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake. Encounters with rattlesnakes in Ontario are rare, but due to careful stewardship the endangered Massasauga Rattlesnake is recovering and re-populating areas of Ontario, including Georgian Bay, the Bruce Peninsula, parts of Muskoka, and parts of southern Ontario. Rattlesnake bites, while extremely rare in Michigan, can and do occur. The swelling is often dramatic with up to 1/3 of the total blood circulation being lost into the tissues in a matter of hours. One symptom is … Transport your cat to the veterinarian immediately. Identifying, protecting, and restoring … This type of bite will likely be accompanied by pain and swelling. The massasauga is listed as threatened species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act. The authors have obtained patient consent. This snake has a rather small, but noticeable, rattle on the end of its tail. To sign up for email alerts or to access your current email alerts, enter your email address below: Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Early symptoms of envenomation after a bite may include the following: Pain and swelling in the affected limb; Bruising or discoloration around the bite; Numbness in the affected limb or in the face; Lightheadedness or weakness; Nausea or vomiting; Sweating; Blurred vision; Difficulty breathing Eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) Western massasauga ... especially with eastern diamondback rattlesnake bites . We filmed the incident, are at home treatment and everything else that came with it. The Eastern massasauga rattlesnake is native to many Midwestern states. The Ontario THE FISH AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION ACT (1997) lists the eastern massasauga rattlesnake as a "specially protected reptile." However, early pioneer reports likely extend their historic range throughout eastern and southern Ohio. eastern massasauga or swamp rattler will often seek higher ground, thereby increasing its chance for humanencounter [2]. The patient did not have any severe bleeding, and after 40 hours, the local swelling and erythema had improved substantially (Figure 2B). Few North American snakes are more feared than the eastern diamondback rattlesnake. Like other rattlesnakes, the timber rattlesnake has solenoglyphous teeth. 8 Neurotoxic effects occur with Elapidae (coral snake) and Mojave rattlesnake bites. Eastern diamondback rattlesnakes live in the southeastern United States. }, "key": "fid#1", Even when witnessed, understanding the following symptoms can help with the administration of first-aid and can provide insight for when to contact medical professionals. Some adults are completely black except for … His international normalized ratio normalized to 1.1 and his partial thromboplastin time was 31 seconds (Box 1). No other competing interests were declared. Consequently, most massasauga bites are “dry bites,” which contain no venom. Due to the … The massasauga is native to the lower peninsula of Michigan and several other Great Lakes states. The massasauga rattlesnake is characterized by its blotching pattern throughout its gray to dark brown body. A venom test kit, blood work, and cultures may be performed to identify the snake and determine treatment. [79] Common symptoms include swelling, severe pain, tingling, weakness, anxiety, nausea and vomiting , hemorrhaging , perspiration , and (rarely) heart failure . What if you or a friend are bitten? A lack of edema or erythema in the area of the bite after eight hours indicates a lack of envenomation for most rattlesnake bites. In approximately 20% of rattlesnake bites, the snake may not inject any venom. elective surgery and dental work for two weeks after the bite.1 To assess for late coagulopathy, a follow-up visit with bloodwork should be scheduled two to three days and five to seven days after discharge.14 References.1 Fargher T. Antivipmyn treatment package for eastern massasauga rattlesnake bites. Severe coagulopathy after a massasauga rattlesnake bite, Antivipmyn treatment package for eastern massasauga rattlesnake bites, West Parry Sound Health Centre, The Ontario Massasauga Rattlesnake Antivenom Depot, Recovery strategy for the massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) in Canada, Species Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series, Venomous snakebites in the United States: management review and update, Snake venom coagulopathy: use and abuse of blood products in the treatment of pit viper envenomation, Procoagulant snake toxins: laboratory studies diagnosis, and understanding snakebite coagulopathy, Deconstructing a complex molecular phenotype: population-level variation in individual venom proteins in eastern massasauga rattlesnakes (, Recurrence phenomena after immunoglobulin therapy for snake envenomations: Part 1. Hankin FM, Smith MD, Penner JA, Louis DS. Nevertheless, this slithery species is seen as one of the most fearsome in the animal kingdom—even felines agree, which is why cats hiss to imitate snakes! Rattlesnake bite protocol provided by: Dr. Daniel Keyler (Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN) ... Wisconsin’s two rattlesnake species, the eastern massasauga and the timber rattlesnake, are shy and secretive animals which often rely on their coloration to avoid being detected. Other ways to reduce the risk are to keep your grass mowed and clear your yard of spots where snakes more commonly reside, such as logs or wood piles. Stay calm. All rights reserved. The massasauga is listed as threatened species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act. If you’re able to bag the dead snake (wear gloves), bring it along with your cat to the animal hospital. Timber Rattlesnake Envenomation Symptoms. Snake bites are life-threatening, extremely painful, expensive to treat, and can cause permanent damage even when the … Rattlesnake Bite: Symptoms, Treatment, and Recovery Timeline Tetanus boosters should be given for prophylaxis.1 Unless a wound infection is present, there is no role for antibiotics in the treatment of rattlesnake bites.9. Initial blood work showed an international normalized ratio of greater than 12.5 (normal range 0.9–1.1), partial thromboplastin time of greater than 180 (normal range 20–40) s and fibrinogen of less than 0.6 (normal range 5.1–11.8) μmol/L. Wisconsin’s rattlesnakes have pronounced rattles at the end of their tails whereas non-venomous species in Wisconsin have tails that come to a point, similar to a sharp pencil. If you think you or someone you know has been bitten by an Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake, go to hospital by ambulance. Although this snake will bite ifcornered orprovoked, it remains more reclusive and docile than other types of rattlesnakes [3], resulting in few reports ofits behavior and potential hazard. Local injury, pain or swelling is concerning for envenomation after a rattlesnake bite. The eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) is a unique and fascinating part of Michigan's natural heritage. These are a highly variable snake that can only be confused with the Eastern Massasauga, the only other snake with a rattle on its tail. Dog… Departments of Medicine (Laureano), and Pathology and Molecular Medicine (Laureano, Crowther), Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. He was discharged after four days of monitoring, during which time he received a total of 32 vials of Antivipmyn. Although there may have been a bite, the rattlesnake does not always inject venom. The 2 ft long snake was later identified by a local expert as Sistrurus catenatus. Dizziness, pain at the site, blurred vision, and prickling in other parts of the body are also signs of a venomous bite, as well as heavy sweating. Habitat of Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake. They should return to an emergency department if they have bleeding, worsening pain, swelling or signs of infection. The Massasauga Rattlesnake, Sistrurus catenatus, is a diminutive species with a distribution in the United States which largely tracks the retreat of Pleistocene glaciation and the spread of grasslands. This was followed by maintenance dosing with 12 vials of antivenom over 18 hours as his symptoms and coagulopathy began to improve. If you hear a timber rattlesnake rattling its tail, your best choice of action is to turn around and walk away. The Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake is dark colored and stocky with a thick, triangular shaped head. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ISSN 1488-2329 (e) 0820-3946 (p). His hemoglobin level and platelet count were within normal limits. In Ontario, the West Parry Sound Health Centre acts as the provincial antivenom depot. Timber Rattlesnake Bite Facts. Share on Pinterest. We are your resource for all things cat and all things Litter-Robot: tips and tricks, health and humor, and general feline fun. 2 The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) considers the snake to be threatened and it is protected under federal and provincial laws.Rattlesnake bites are uncommon, but potentially … Non-venomous snake bites on cats are much more common than venomous, but these kinds of bites can still be dangerous. Laboratory work including a complete blood count, electrolytes, creatinine, urea, glucose, creatine kinase, international normalized ratio, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase should be measured two hours after each dose of antivenom.1 Persistent pain or swelling, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy are indications for further treatment.1 As symptoms and laboratory values improve, maintenance dosing of antivenom can be given and the frequency of bloodwork can be decreased.1, Upon discharge, patients should be counselled regarding reasons to seek medical attention. On the other hand, venomous snake bites typically appear as two puncture marks. This designation legally protects the massasauga from being harassed, captured, killed, bought, or sold. If you’ve seen these snakes in the wild or know that they exist where you live, you can be better prepared for the unlikely event of a cat snake bite. after a rattlesnake bite. His international normalized ratio and partial thromboplastin time 3.5 hours after administration of antivenom improved to 2.4 and 45 seconds, respectively. The Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake is a pit viper with a triangular shaped head and dark brown, slightly rectangular patterns on the body that are set against a slightly lighter grey to dark brown background. What if you or a friend are bitten? These species like to have mammals, insects and other animals in their diet. Do NOT approach the snake unless you are certain it is deceased. But, because of the snake’s elusive and shy behavior, people rarely are bitten by them. Photo courtesy of Joe Crowley; Ontario Nature . Rattlesnake bites are venomous. Remove any jewelry or anything tight from the bitten limb. Like other rattlers, it shakes its tail above the ground when it perceives danger, though not as high. There are dark stripes on both sides and top of the head. The mechanism is not clearly understood, but it is thought to be a result of the clearance of the antivenom and a subsequent reappearance of the venom’s effects.8 Venom can also be deposited as a depot at the site of the bite, resulting in lingering, unneutralized venom.8, To prevent rattlesnake bites, it is important to wear ankle-height, closed-toed boots or shoes when hiking in areas with rattlesnakes. Snakes get a bad rap: They’re typically unlikely to bite unless surprised or on the defensive. Competing interests: Within the last 48 months, Mark Crowther has sat on advisory boards for Octapharma, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, Pfizer, LEO Pharma and Portola; participated in study steering committees, or other research-related activities for projects involving AKP America, Daiichi, Bayer and LEO Pharma; received a Career Investigator award from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario; and held the LEO Pharma Chair in Thromboembolism Research at McMaster University (income from which is used to support the salary of research employees). The body is marked along back and sides with rounded dark blotches against a gray or brownish gray background. As with all rattlesnakes, the Massasauga contains a highly potent venom. Wash the bite area with soap and water if possible. His institutions (McMaster University and St Joseph’s Healthcare) have received funding for research projects from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, LEO Pharma and Bayer for work in which Mark Crowther is involved. Although this rattlesnake is smaller in size than many other pit vipers, envenomation can still produce significant morbidity, particularly in children. Antivenom is the first-line treatment for envenomation. Cat snake bite symptoms: Venomous. The Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake Species Survival Plan® is a collaborative science-based management program of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. They warn humans to stay away with their tail-based rattle, a technique often mimicked by non-lethal snakes, such as colubrids. This is called a dry bite and allows the snake to save its venom for real prey. The rattlesnake bite is generally “hemotoxic” which means that it exerts its toxin by disrupting the integrity of the blood vessels. He developed lower leg edema, and pain and swelling around his great toe, but he delayed seeking medical treatment for 22 hours (Figure 2A). Rattlesnakes. The eastern massasauga rattlesnake belongs to the pitviper group, which are members of the larger reptile family, vipers. Flush the area thoroughly with sterile saline solution or mild soap and water. Although this snake will bite ifcornered orprovoked, it remains more reclusive and docile than other types of rattlesnakes [3], resulting in few reports ofits behavior and potential hazard. Timber Rattlesnake Teeth. Venom-related coagulopathy can affect almost any component of the hemostatic system, and snakebites have been associated with platelet dysfunction, vessel wall breakdown, prothrombin overactivation and fibrinogen degradation.5,6 The nature of snake venom is complex, and a proteomic-based analysis of eastern massasauga venom showed the presence of metalloproteinases, L-amino acid oxidase, phospholipase A2 enzymes and serine proteases.7, Coagulopathy can recur after initial treatment with antivenom. Learning how to recognize and quickly react is the best way to prepare for a snake bite on a cat. A healthy 25-year-old man was bitten by an eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus; Figure 1) on his left great toe. He had been walking outside at night in open-toed sandals in the Eastern Georgian Bay region of Ontario. Cats are most likely to be bit by a snake on their legs. Threatened species are animals and plants that are likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future. A bite from a massasauga can be very painful and is potentially life threatening. The Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake is a rare species, who have received a bad name.

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