, Norrga S, Jin L, Wallmark O et al (2013) A novel inverter topology for compact EV and HEV drive systems. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 59:589–598. The ZSI improves the stability and safety of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive system under complex conditions. Comparisons between various costs involved in vehicle are as follows: Fuel costs The main difference between EVs and ICVs is their fuel source, ICVs run on gasoline, while EVs run on electricity. In: IEEE int electr mach drives conf IEMDC. (2007) A new adjustable-speed drives (ASD) system based on high-performance Z-source inverter. Impendence source inverter (also called Z-source inverter, ZSI for short) has been considered an efficient candidate in vehicle applications such as drive system reliability, which leads to an increase in the range of inverter output. Article  Subject Area and Category: Energy Fuel Technology Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment Engineering Automotive Engineering: Publisher: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., Capasso C, Veneri O (2017) Integration between Super-capacitors and ZEBRA batteries as high performance hybrid storage system for electric vehicles., Inokuchi S, Co ME, Inokuchi S (2015) A new versatile high power Intelligent Power Module (IPM) for EV and HEV applications. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 57:1433–1441. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 27:970–976. The classification of various motors used in traction is shown in Fig. There are various hybrid cars now available and manufactured by Audi, BMW, Chevrolet, Ford, Honda, Mercedes, McLaren, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Hyundai, Porsche, Tesla, Toyota, etc. World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653) is the first peer-reviewed international scientific journal that covers all studies related to battery, hybrid, and fuel cell electric vehicles comprehensively. In: 18th international conference on electrical machines Vilamoura, pp 1–5., Ding W, Hu Y, Wu L (2015) Analysis and development of novel three-phase hybrid magnetic paths switched reluctance motors using modular and segmental structures for EV applications., Yang S, Peng FZ, Lei Q et al (2011) Current-fed quasi-z-source inverter with voltage buck-boost and regeneration capability. In: Conf proc IEEE appl power electron conf expo (APEC), pp 800–807. In: IEEE Veh power propuls conf VPPC proc. J Power Sources 196:587–595., Badodkar DN (2018) Transient analysis of three-phase high-power voltage source inverter with nonlinearities., Zhu ZQ, Howe D (2007) Electrical machines and drives for electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. Since electric vehicles (EVs) have been recognized as a technology that reduces local air pollution while improving transport energy security, they have been promoted in many countries. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 66:5584–5594. This topology shows a good performance, especially for the controllability of current flow. IEEE J Emerg Sel Top Power Electron 5:458–468. This figure is subject to the rates of gas and electricity. The MPPT algorithms, namely P&O, IC and only current, are compared in terms of energy performances in ambient conditions, and IC has proved to be better [282]. The circuit for CSI is simple. An extensive research has been carried out on DC/AC converters including single-stage single-phase [31], single-stage three-phase [32] or zero voltage switching inverters [33]. Low power A traditional vehicle is equipped with a powerful ICE which allows it to provide tremendous speed and torque. The target readership is composed of professionals, engineers, managers and decision makers of the automotive, electronic and electrical equipment industries, academics, researchers and professors working in universities or research institutes in these fields. ISA Trans 57:329–339. In: 2008 IEEE vehicle power and propulsion conference, VPPC 2008. Invention of power converter topologies for drive control has advanced the traction systems for EVs over recent years. Therefore, the combination of these two will lead to high stability of the entire system [114, 115]. The test area chosen is Mysore City, India in deriving the driving cycle., Lam LT, Louey R (2006) Development of ultra-battery for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. A full statement of our. The IMCCR has been suggested as a better choice for the driving systems in EVs and PHEVs. Correspondence to Accessed 5 Oct 2018, Propfe B, Redelbach M, Santini DJ et al. In: IEEE 13th Int work adv motion control, pp 161–166. ISA Trans 71:542–552. CES Trans Electr Mach Syst 1:100–108, Morimoto S, Ooi S, Inoue Y, Sanada M (2014) Experimental evaluation of a rare-earth-free PMASynRM with ferrite magnets for automotive applications., Wolfs P, Quan L (2006) A current-sensor-free incremental conductance single cell MPPT for high performance vehicle solar arrays., Zhang S, Xiong R, Sun F (2015) Model predictive control for power management in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with a hybrid energy storage system. Another possible approach for extending the electric range of an HEV is to allow continuous charging of the battery while running. Also, a battery and UC can be interfaced by means of bidirectional DC/DC converter in many ways [145]. (2015) Double sided cooled module concept for high power density in HEV applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15:981–992. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 52(4):3071–3082, Da Ru D, Morandin M, Bolognani S, Castiello M (2017) Test bench for emulating a variety of salient rotor electrical propulsion machines with a single permanent-magnet synchronous machine drive., Ellabban O, Mierlo J Van, Lataire P, Elsene B- (2009) Comparison between different PWM control methods for different Z- source inverter topologies keywords review of PWM control methods for ZSI simple boost control modified space vector PWM (MSVPWM) control. The World Electric Vehicle Journal is the first peer-reviewed international scientific journal that covers all studies related to battery, hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicles comprehensively. The hybrid structure provided a smooth transition from current vector control to modulating voltage-scaled controller mode by deactivating the current regulator in the flux-weakening region., Yan HS, Wu YC (2006) A novel configuration for a brushless DC motor with an integrated planetary gear train. Electric vehicles (EVs) were tried as a solution in 1881 where battery alone propelled the vehicle and therefore required a bulky battery pack. Dublin, Ireland. In: PESC Rec—IEEE annu power electron spec conf. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 62:4023–4033. An adaptive FL-based EMS is used to determine the power split between the battery and the UC pack. As a baseline, a hybrid vehicle … Security A HEV requires a controller for the optimum usage of ICE and electric motor power trains. A novel configuration of the BLDC motor with an integrated planetary gear train, which provides functional and structural integrations to overcome inherent drawbacks of traditional designs, has been presented in [194]. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 60:4881–4890. In: 2013 world electr veh symp exhib EVS 2014, pp 1–5. 3. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Replacement of the input diode by a bidirectional switch in the basic version results in bidirectional ZSI topology. volume 27, pages77–107(2019)Cite this article. In comparison to the FHEV, the MHEV needs a lower degree of electrical power performance. 27, 77–107 (2019). A single-electrical-port control scheme, for four-quadrant operation of cascaded DFIM, is proposed in [238], and a new hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for IM has been proposed to improve torque control. The IC algorithm is the procedure where the voltage and current curves provide the maximum power level [272]. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 61:5712–5721. This topology was used in [148] to reduce the conduction and switching losses and to improve the accuracy. Multi-Mode Driving Control of a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Driving Pattern Recognition Soon-il Jeon, Ph.D. candidate,, Soon-il Jeon, Ph.D. candidate, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinrim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul 151-742, Korea. For IM, the torque–speed operation region for EV/HEV applications is nearly doubled with the proposed algorithm. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 60:89–97. When looking into the compact market, it is seen that an HEV would be about ~ $9,000–$10,000 more expensive. 1–7, Adachi S, Yoshida S, Miyata H et al (2016) Automotive power module technologies for high speed switching., Choi M-E, Kim S-W, Seo S-W (2012) Energy management optimization in a battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system. reducing the fuel costs., Na W, Park T, Kim T, Kwak S (2011) Light fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicles based on predictive controllers. A new concept having two semi-active configurations, i.e., a semi-active UC and a battery, has been postulated in [149]. In: IEEE Trans Veh Technol, p 1., Fathabadi H (2018) Utilizing solar and wind energy in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Various HEV battery compositions have been tried in the past with the best results from lithium-ion derivatives., Wolfs P, Li Q (2007) Hardware implementation and performance analysis of a current-sensor-free single cell MPPT for high performance vehicle solar arrays., Roche M, Shabbir W, Evangelou S (2016) Voltage control for enhanced power electronic efficiency in series hybrid electric vehicles. All authors must declare they have read and agreed to the content of the submitted article. It is observed that agencies have provided different statistics based on the growth rates, and thus, there are no unique data available on the long-term market share of these vehicles.

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